The nbn Multi-Technology Mix delivers services in many different ways


nbn installs fibre into your house using GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network). GPON shares a single fibre strand (and its bandwidth) with several dwellings. When deploying GPON, nbn will need access to your house to install the fibre optic and an NTD (Network Termination Device). You connect your router to the NTD with an Ethernet cable.

Due to the high bandwidth available on GPON (2.4 Gbit/sec down & 1.2 Gbit/sec up), all nbn speed tiers are available.


In FTTN/FTTB deployments, nbn installs fibre to a roadside or basement cabinet containing a DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Module) – the same kind of device used to deliver ADSL. However, instead of an ADSL2+ signal, nbn uses VDSL2 DSLAMs and shortens the length of the telephone cable to less than 1 KM, dramatically increasing speeds.

nbn does not need to install any equipment inside your house, all you must do is connect a VDSL2 capable modem to your existing phone line.


FTTC works similarly to FTTN but shortents the existing copper telephone cabling to less than 100 metres. nbn achieves this by running fibre to a DPU (Distribution Point Unit) in the street, which then feeds a VDSL2 signal to up to four houses. nbn supplies an NTD which reverse powers the DPU from your house. You plug your router into the nbn supplied NTD, and the NTD into power and your phone line.

(Hybrid Fibre-Coaxial)

HFC uses the existing Telstra pay-TV cable network to deliver internet services. In HFC, fibre optic terminates on a node (Similar to FTTN), but nbn then uses coaxial rather than telephone cables, providing much higher speeds. nbn installs a cable modem to which you connect your router.

Speeds up to 100/40 mbit/sec are available on HFC, but nbn are still resolving problems in the HFC network.

Fixed Wireless

In rural areas, nbn will use Fixed Wireless to deliver services. nbn runs fibre to a base station, which then services the area with 4G. Installation includes an antenna on your roof and an NTD in your house to which you connect a router.

nbn allows speeds of up to 50/20 mbit/sec on Fixed Wireless, but there may be congestion on your local tower.

What Can Affect Your Speed?

A lot of things. If you’re on a VDSL based service (FTTC/FTTN/FTTB), poor internal wiring can cause problems – something as innocuous as an old, hardwired alarm system can have a significant impact on your line speed. With these technologies, always ensure that you connect the NTD or modem to the primary socket in your house, on the shortest possible telephone cable. Unfortunately, the length and the condition of the telephone line outside your house will also affect your line speed, so are hard limits to available speeds on those services.

All service types are vulnerable to congestion at different points. We monitor our connection to nbn’s network to ensure there’s ample capacity where our network meets theirs, but we can’t control congestion on your node, or tower.

In other instances, a device on your local network can affect speed as well by saturating your connection. If you’re stuck, don’t hesitate to give us a call, or drop us an email and we can give you a hand to work out where the problem is.